Latvian alphabet and pronunciation
Latvian nouns could be divided into declinable and indeclinable nouns. Most of Latvian nouns are declinable. Declinable nouns in Latvian are divided into 6 declensions. The declension of noun is determined by its ending and gender.
In addition there is a special group of reflexive nouns which are derived from reflexive verbs.
The case generation in Latvian is realized by adding ending (determined by declension of noun) to the stem of noun. 2nd, 5th and 6th declensions include rules when the consonant preceding the case ending is to be palatalized.
The consonants preceding case ending is to be palatalized for nouns of second declension in singular genitive and all plural word forms as well as for nouns of 5th or 6th declension in plural genitive.
The consonant is not palatalized for:
- proper names of second declension which ends with -ckis, -skis;
- proper noun with two syllables which ends with -tis, -dis;
- some exceptions.
Adjectives in Latvian have two types of endings: the indefinite endings and definite endings. The case generation of adjectives is determined by gender and type of ending. The masculine adjectives with indefinite ending are declined as nouns of first declension, the feminine nouns with indefinite ending are declined as nouns of 4th declension.
Verbs in Latvian are divided into three conjugations. Besides there are irregular verbs.
There are three simple tenses: present tense, imperfect tense and future tense and three perfect tenses: present perfect, past perfect, future perfect. Latvian verbs are used into five moods: indicative, imperative, conditional, conjunctive and debitive mood.