Language Information

Lithuanian alphabet

Latin alphabet for Lithuanian

Grammar

In everyday speech sentence structure is Subject-Verb-Object. There are no articles in Lithuanian. There are seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, vocative. The locative (inessive) isn't an objective case and words in the locative always are adjuncts, this way it could be also included in this subsection. However, according to a tradition of Lithuanian grammars, the locative is put with other "standard" cases.

Adverb forming cases:

Personal pronouns are not used very often in Lithuanian. In general, you will not have to use a personal pronoun if a verb is present. They are used for emphasis only with 3rd person subjects. Personal pronouns (I), tu (you) jis, ji (he, she, it) are declined as follows:

 

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Locative

Singular

1st Person

manęs

man

mane

manimi

manyje

2nd Person

tu

tavęs

tau

tave

tavimi

tavyje

3rd Person

Masculine

jis

jo

jam

juo

jame

Feminine

ji

jos

jai

ja

joje

Dual

1st Person

Masculine

mudu

mudviejų

mudviem

mudu

mudviem

mudviese

Feminine

mudvi

mudvi

2nd Person

Masculine

judu

judviejų

judviem

judu

judviem

judviese

Feminine

judvi

judvi

3rd Person

Masculine

juodu or jiedu

judviejų

jiedviem

juodu

jiemdviem

juodviese

Feminine

jiedvi

judviejų

jodviem

jiedvi

jodviem

jiedviese

Plural

1st Person

mes

mūsų

mums

mus

mumis

mumyse

2nd Person

jūs

jūsų

jums

jus

jumis

jumyse

3rd Person

Masculine

jie

jiems

juos

jais

juose

Feminine

jos

joms

jas

jomis

jose

Verb Tenses:

Moods:

The three moods without distinction of tenses have periphrastic perfect along with their main form.

Voices:

-         in a case of a participle it's a different grammatic form with 3 main tenses (it doesn't have the past iterative tense).

-         in a case of conjugated verbs it's periphrastic, based on the passive participles (3 main tenses).

Conjugative verbal forms:

        The present tense

        The past tense

        The past iterative tense

        The future tense

        The imperative mood

        The optative mood (having the 3rd person only, sometimes treated as the 3rd person of the imperative mood)

        The conditional mood

The non-conjugative verbal forms are close to other non-conjugated grammatical categories, e. g. the participles are close to adjectives. But they also retain (except the verbal intensifier) verbal specifics to have their own subject (except the infinitive, the gerund and the semi-participle) objects and adjuncts.

-         The participles of the active voice, there are different ones of four tenses (the present, the past, the past iterative and the future).

-         The participles of the passive voice, there are different ones of three tenses (the present, the past, and the future).

        The sub-participles are verbal adverbs, not declined, being of four tenses (the present, the past, the past iterative and the future) of the active voice. The sub-participle has its own specific order, to put its subject.

        The semi-participle is a verbal adverb, closer to the main verb in the sentence than the sub-participle, not having distinction of tenses. The semi-participle isn't declined, but it has forms of number and gender, and they should be used in concord with the subject of the main verb in the sentence (whereas semi-participle couldn't have its own subject).

        The verbal intensifier is a verbal particle, used to mark more intensive action, than one of the single verb. It is quite always used with a verb of the same stem and never has its separate objects or adjuncts.

        The verbal interjection could be formed from verbs of certain categories. It's used like a simple interjection, but could have its own subject, objects and (not often) adjuncts.

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